EFFECTIVENESS OF SUN-IN HAIR LIGHTENER. Alicia Little and Cam Murray. Strands of medium-brown hair were tested with and without Sun-In Hair lightening spray under a hairdryer, a UV lamp, and left to air-dry. The Sun-In spray did not appear to make an effective difference except in the instance of the UV lamp. However, hair left under the UV lamp without Sun-In was considerably lightened as well. Many people purchase Sun-In to try and lighten their hair when lying in the sun appears to be an equally effective method. In addition, many Sun-In users use a hairdryer instead of the Sun to supposedly make the Sun-In work. A hairdryer blowing on hair with Sun-In is not an effective hair-lightening method. Key words: Sun-In, Ultraviolet, Hair Lightener

Project Topic:
Effectiveness of hair products that claim to enhance the sun's natural hair lightening effect
Chemistry Concept:
Destruction of Melanin in hair follicles - thus producing a lighter color
Hypothesis:
Hair with sun-in exposed to UV rays will be lightened to a further extent than hair with sun-in with no exposure to UV rays.
Journal Article:
Menon, A., Persad, A., Ranadine, N. S. and Haberman, H. F. ( 1983). Effects of ultraviolet-visible radiation in the presence of melanin isolated from human black or red hair upon Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 43, 3165-3169. Retrieved from
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/43/7/3165.full.pdf+html

Newald, G., & Fowler, M. (1999). U.S. Patent No. 5,968,486. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
http://www.google.com/patents/US5968486?printsec=description&dq=sun-in+hydrogen+peroxide+hair#v=onepage&q=sun-in%20hydrogen%20peroxide%20hair&f=false

Sun-in. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sun-in.com/original.asp

Takahashi, T., & Nakamura, K. (2004). A study of the photolightening mechanism of blond hair with visible and ultraviolet light. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 26(3), 271-272. Retrieved from
http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=8&hid=125&sid=b22e7d14-3a19-4744-ac3b-67ffd5b266b1%40sessionmgr110&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=14454072
Lab Procedure
(Source?)
  1. Separate hair samples into 18 equal sized pieces
  2. label 6 groups of three by Sun-In/No Sun-In and UV Light/Hairdryer/Nothing
  3. First group: Hairdryer
    1. wet all samples
    2. spray samples labeled 'Sun-In' (3) with Sun-In
    3. blow dry for five minutes (See figure 1)
    4. repeat once (make sure to wet the No Sun-In samples first to avoid contamination)
  4. Second group: UV Light
    1. wet all samples
    2. spray samples labeled 'Sun-In' (3) with Sun-In
    3. place in white tub under UV light for 30 minutes (see figure 3)
    4. repeat once (make sure to wet the No Sun-In samples first to avoid contamination)
  5. Third group: Nothing (Air-dry)
    1. wet all samples
    2. spray samples labeled 'Sun-In' (3) with Sun-In
    3. place in white tub and let sit on shelf for 24 hours
    4. repeat once (make sure to wet the No Sun-In samples first to avoid contamination)
  6. Photograph Samples and record observations in table 1
7. Addition: take 4/6 UV samples (2 Sun-In, 2 No Sun-In) and repeat steps third time, letting sit under UV light for 24 hours
Apparatus &
Chemicals Needed
- Real Human Hair - Brown
- Sun-in spray (made up of primarily Hydrogen Peroxide & Lemon Juice)
- UV Light
Safety Information:
Chemicals/Reaction

Other Information:


Introduction:
Hair color is one of the most distinct external features a person has. That being said, many people choose to change theirs, through lightening, darkening, dying or cutting. Lightening hair is one of the easiest modifications to accomplish without the help of a stylist. It doesn’t take much to lighten hair of any shade; lying in the sun will do. But some want faster or more drastic results. For a long time, these people had the choice of lightening their hair marginally in the summer sun or bleaching their hair much, much lighter. In 1999, a new hair lightening technique was patented. The company named their product Sun-In. In their patent application, Chattem, makers of Sun-In and other personal care products, explained that the distinctive property of their product is that it contains a gradual lightening agent, strengthened with heat, that can be used to control the color change in hair (Newell, 1999…). Users of this product can lighten their hair as little or much as they choose. That being said, one of Sun-In’s main ingredients is hydrogen peroxide, which can be used very effectively on its own to bleach hair. While the product’s name implies the use of the sun or other heat source in order to properly lighten hair, one must wonder if the only thing doing the lightening is the chemicals present. The directions on Sun-In state simply to lie in the sun or blow-dry your hair – but why? Is the chemical doing all the work on its own or is it the heat of the hairdryer or the ultraviolet radiation of the sun that helps the process along? In order to properly test this, real samples of human hair must be subjected to the different methods of Sun-In use.

Materials and Methods:
A large sample of human hair, tape, a hairdryer, and a UVB/UVA lamp was necessary for this experiment. The hair samples were separated into six groups of three. They were then labeled based upon their variables; Sun-In, no Sun-In, UV lamp, hairdryer, and nothing. The first six samples, three with Sun-In, three without, were left in front of a hairdryer for 5 minutes (See figure 1). The second six samples, three with Sun-In, three without, were left under a UV lamp for 30 minutes (See figure 3). The third six samples, three with Sun-In, three without, were left out on the countertop with no additional light or heat source (See figure 2). Observations and photos were taken on individual samples. All of these trials were run twice on the same samples. In addition, four of the six UV lamp samples, two with Sun-In, two without, ran a third time for 24 hours.

hairdryer.jpg
Figure 1: Hairdryer

air_dry.jpg
Figure 2: Air-dry (Nothing)

uv_light.jpg
Figure 3: UV Light

Results:
Table 1: Observations [plus photos]

Sun-In
No Sun-In
Hair
dryer
SunInNothing.jpg
NoSunInHairdryer.jpg
1
2
3
1
2
3
Slightest bit lighter à highlights, tiny bit frizzy
Definite highlights, slightly frizzy
Lighter + highlights, hardly frizzy
No color changes, a little frizzy
No color changes, frizzy
No color changes, frizzy
UV Light
x2
SunInUV.jpg
NoSunInUV.jpg
1
2
3
1
2
3
Definite lightening effect
Much lighter
Slightly lighter
Slightly lighter, some highlights
Hardly lighter
No change
UV Light
x3
SunInUV3.jpg
NoSunInUV3.jpg
1
2
1
2
Slightly lighter than after 2 UV tests
Only slightly lighter than previous observation
Slightly lighter
Slightly lighter
Nothing
SunInNothing.jpg
NoSunInNothing.jpg
1
2
3
1
2
3
Hardly lighter, some slight highlights
Minor highlights
Slightly lighter
No change
No change
No change










sunin_graphic.jpg
Upon completion of each test, samples were left to sit overnight before photographs were taken and observations recorded in Table 1. In summary, it was found that Sun-In did not exhibit much lightening effects on the hair samples without the heat of the hairdryer or UV light (see Table 1: Sun-In/Nothing). While the hairdryer did lighten the Sun-In samples, it did not nearly lighten as much as the UV light. However, the UV light also lightened the ‘No Sun-In’ samples, though not quite as dramatically as the ‘Sun-In’ samples.


Discussion:
Although it appeared that the secret to Sun-In was the presence of hydrogen peroxide, a known hair lightening agent, it was found that the presence of heat and/or UV light did in fact help Sun-In’s effects. Samples with Sun-In that had not been exposed to heat such as a hairdryer or UV lamp showed only minor changes in color (Table 1). Hair samples treated with Sun-In and left under the UV lamp, whether for 30 minutes or 24 hours, showed significant color changes (Table 1). Samples under the UV lamp that were not treated with Sun-In also showed color changes, though not as dramatic as those in the same test but with Sun-In. While these observations do support the directions on bottles of Sun-In requiring heat and/or sunlight to effectively treat hair, it should also be noted that one can likely attain similar results simply by lying out in the sun for longer.
Also noted was the effect of the hairdryer on Sun-In treated hair. The hairdryer made samples of both varieties frizzy, but was unable to demonstrate much color change in the Sun-In treated hair beyond that of the samples treated with Sun-In and left out to air-dry. Due to the fairly imprecise method for testing Sun-In, there were some possibilities for error. Samples left under the UV light and left out to air dry shared a white tub which could have transferred trace amounts of Sun-In onto ‘No Sun-In’ samples. However, in order to prevent contamination, the paper towels used to wet hair samples before each test were not used on both ‘Sun-In’ and ‘No Sun-In’ samples.